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“People leave managers, not companies.” We’ve all heard it. Many of us have experienced it. But what makes people want to leave a manager in the first place? And if you happen to lead a team, what qualities can make you better? Those are the types of questions @Google set out to answer. In 2008, they began research into what makes a good manager, code-named Project Oxygen. They originally identified eight behaviors that were common among their highest performing managers, and began training all managers to develop those behaviors. Over time, Google saw a marked improvement in key metrics such as employee turnover, satisfaction, and performance. But as the company grew, the demands on managers also increased. Google continued their research. They refined it. They learned more. “We found that, over time, the qualities of a great manager at Google had grown and evolved with along with the company,” wrote Melissa Harrell and Lauren Barbato earlier this year. Harrell works as a staffing services manager and Barbato as a people analyst.  After taking a second look at its research, Google then “refreshed [its] behaviors according to internal research and Google and [employee] feedback, and put them to the test.” This resulted in a new list, identifying two completely new behaviors (Nos. 9 and 10) and updating two others (Nos. 3 and 6). Here are the 10 behaviors of Google’s best managers, along with some practical tips on how to develop these behaviors. (You can find more detailed advice on developing your management skills in my new book, EQ Applied: The Real-World Guide to Emotional Intelligence.)

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